Research achievements

A.    Highlights

·       Grape germplasm was collected within the country and augmenting it with that from abroad. At present germplasm contains 465 accessions.

·       These accessions were characterized by morphological and molecular methods and several duplicates, synonyms, misnomers were identified.

·       A set of core collection representing entire genetic diversity, were identified. 

·       Sources of resistance to downy mildew disease are identified and the information is being utilized for resistance breeding programme and to develop molecular markers for downy mildew resistance.

·       Germplasm sources with multiple disease resistance have been identified through extensive field screening.

·       Two databases one each on germplasm and molecular data were created to manage all this information.

·       ‘Manjri Naveen’ a clonal selection from the Centennial Seedless having self-thinning of bunches and uniform naturally bold white seedless berries with firm pulp and mild Vanessa flavour has been released on 14th November 2008. It is early ripening by 30 days in comparison to Thompson Seedless. The grape selection is suited for table grape export and few growers are exporting this selection.

·       Kishmish Rozavis White, a white mutant selection from Kishmish Rozavis has been identified for raisins and table purpose. It is also a good yielder of quality fruits.

·       A18-3, a black seedless variety with rudimentary seeds, regular yielder and suited for table purpose, black raisins have also been identifies.

·       Clone 2A of Thompson Seedless, Red Globe, Crimson Seedless, Flame Seedless and Italia were introduced.

·       Red Globe a naturally bold (size > 22+mm), seeded table grape variety is now recommended for both domestic and international markets.

·       Flame Seedless, a short duration variety (90-110 days) is recommended for north India based on its performance in AICRP trials.

·        Fantasy Seedless is identified for export for its good fruit traits and better shelf life. 

·       Country Bangalore, E 12/2, Pusa Navrang and Medika (Pusa Navrang X Flame Seedless hybrid developed at the Centre) have been identified as suitable for juice production. 

·       Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz and Merlot have been found suitable for red wine production, while Chenin Blanc and Sauvignon Blanc for white wine under Indian conditions.

·       Dogridge was found suitable for growing Thompson Seedless and Tas-A-Ganesh. Other potential rootstocks like 110 R, B2 – 56, 1103 P, 99 R, Salt Creek were evaluated.

·       Studies on Table and wine grapes revealed that Dogridge rootstock does not have sodium exclusion property.

·       110R rootstock was found suitable under saline conditions due to its Na exclusion property for both table and wine grapes.

·       1103P rootstock was found to better than Dogridge in excluding Na under saline irrigation.

·       Irrigation scheduling for Thompson Seedless vines grafted on Dogridge rootstock based upon crop growth stage and pan evaporation was standardised.

·       Technique for improving water use efficiency through use of mulch and antistress resulted in 25% savings in irrigation water.

·       Application of drip water below soil surface at 9¢¢ depth in black cotton type soil resulted in 25% savings in irrigation water compared to surface method of drip irrigation.

·       Petiole nutrient guide for Thompson Seedless grown on Dogridge rootstock was developed.

·       Fertigation schedule for NPK based on crop growth stage for Thompson Seedless vines raised on Dogridge rootstock was standardised.

·       In a mature Thompson Seedless vines raised on Dogridge rootstock, the currently recommended dose for P using fertigation could be reduced by 50% to 176 kg P2O5/ha.

·       For Cabernet Sauvignon grapes raised on 110R rootstock, FYM@15ton/ha (dry weight basis) coupled with 100 kg K2O /ha has been found to be sufficient for quality grape production.

·       Associations of nutrients  with  several disorders viz., Bunch stem necrosis, inward leaf curl, leaf blackening and necrosis, shiny spots, vein reddening and necrosis, inflorescence necrosis and Leaf reddening and necrosis were identified, which could be corrected by proper nutrient application.

·       Diagnosis of nutrient imbalance in raisin producing vineyards affected bunch stem necrosis revealed that ratio of Ca and Mg rather than their absolute contents were associated with the necrosis.

·       The schedule for economic use of bio-regulators in enhancing bud-break and for improving bunch and berry quality was standardized for Thompson Seedless, Tas a Ganesh, Sharad Seedless and Flame Seedless. 

·       The application of Hydrogen cyanamide based on thickness of the cane resulted in uniform budbreak in grapes and its continuous use had no deleterious effect on vine growth, productivity and quality of fruits

·       Addition of phytotron or Tally plus or citric acid or urea phosphate or phosphoric acid to GA3  solution increased the efficacy of GA3 in  producing loose clusters and berry size and also increased the pedicel thickness thus enhanced shelf life and reduced berry drop.

·       A plant bio-stimulant like Quantum or Fantac or Green Boost or Green Miracle were found effective in increasing total chlorophyll content, bunch weight, berry length and berry crispness

·       Sea weed extract formulations (Bioforce, Biovita, Kelpak etc.,) maintained the leaves green for longer period during April and increased TSS After October pruning.

·       Application of 6 BA @ 20 ppm and GA3 @ 20 ppm showed the best results with respect to Manjri Naveen for yield and quality production. This packages and practices are being used by many grape growers to increase quality yield.

·       Bunches covered fully after 75 days after pruning were found free from pink berry. This technology is being used by all the grape growers for export quality grapes.

·       Multi-residue method for the plant growth regulators like GA3, 6BA, CPPU, Ethrel, ABA etc. has been standardized. Approx. 14 bioregulators can be analysed with this method. Use of this technology gained the importance since residue of CCC was found in Indian grapes. This methodology is being followed by all the laboratories analyzing the samples before exporting the table grapes.

·       Ethephon was found effective for defoliation before fruit pruning in Thompson Seedless grapes. Farmers are widely using this technique since it advances the bud sprout.

·       UPH-707, PC 02-08 and BCS AA 10717 SC 500 were tried for the control of complex weed flora in grapes. These three herbicides were found effective to control the weeds as compared to the control treatment.

·       The pink berry formation is menace with respect to export of grape. This is a complex phenomenon results in no permanent solution for this disorder. However, the proper wrapping or covering of the bunches with paper cover found effective in not only reducing but 100% avoiding the pink berry formation.

·       Application of calcium nitrate in the form of nitrate or chloride at 75 or 90 or 105 days after pruning @5-10 g/L found effective in enhancing the shelf of grapes particularly Thompson Seedless.

·       The grape genotypes were evaluated for drought tolerance under field conditions. A low transpiration rate was recorded in the cultivar Kishmish Cherney and in SO4 in rootstocks.

·       The canopy architecture, canopy size and the bunch number and size for optimizing fruit quality in Tas-A-Ganesh variety grafted on Dogridge rootstock was standardized.

·       Nursery techniques for increasing rooting and further establishment of different grape rootstocks were also standardized.

·       Disease forecasting software, Metwin 2 from Austria was found useful in the forecasting of downy mildew and anthracnose disease.

·       Forecasting based disease management resulted in considerable saving of number of sprays during one year of production cycle as compared to conventional pre-determined schedule based management.

·       Prototype disease forecasting software for powdery mildew management was developed. The software takes daily weather data, field data and generates diagnosis and recommends the choice and dose of fungicides. The software was released and made available to the growers and has received good response.

·       A web based system for location specific weather forecast and disease management advisory has been developed.

·       Risk of major diseases and pests and risk based advice on disease and insect pest management is also updated every week on Institute’s website http://nrcgrapes.nic.in.

·       Weather based disease-forecasting technique developed at the center is being used by the leading grape growing and processing firms and also adopted by Departments of Agriculture of Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh for the disease management in grapes.

·       Safe fungicides and practices to improve fungicide use efficiency were identified.

·       Seasonal incidence of major insect pests viz. mealy bugs, flea beetle, thrips and jassids was observed in vineyards of Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. Insect incidence showed correlation with weather parameters.

·       New generation pesticides, environmentally friendly chemicals, botanicals were tested for bio-efficacy and residue data in controlling diseases and insect pests and effective molecules were included in the recommended schedule for their management.

·       Dissipation rate kinetics for many chemicals was studied and their PHI was calculated to recommend their safe use. 

·       A survey on fruit fly infestation revealed that the Indian vineyards are free from the incidence of fruit fly infestation including the areas in the vicinity of mango and guava orchards which is a major pest in quarantine regulation of mango fruit from this country. This has opened up several markets for the export of grape.

·       The post harvest pathogens in Indian grapes were identified and Botrytis cinerea, which is the worldwide major post harvest pathogen, was not found to be a problem in Indian grapes.

·       Several pre and post-harvest technologies were developed for improved shelf life which included use of bio control fungus T. harzianum. These technologies not only helped in improving shelf life but also minimized sulfur injury during storage.

·       Quality of Indian raisins was harmonized with the Codex standard. Several techniques were developed to minimize browning during raisin making.

·       Studies on standardization of crop load and other cultural practices for obtaining quality wines in case of wine grape varieties under Indian conditions have yielded promising results.

·       A local yeast strain was identified for making quality wine from Cabernet Sauvignon.

B.    Saleable technology identified

Planting material of the following varieties and rootstocks are given to farmers on reasonable rates under Material Transfer Agreements.

  1. Table and raisin grape varieties - 2A Clone, Manjri Naveen, Fantasy seedless, Red Globe, Crimson Seedless, Kishmish Rozavis White, A 18-3
  2. Wine Grape - Cabernet Sauvignon, Chenin Blanc, Shiraz, Sauvignon Blanc.

C.    Technology Commercialized (download pdf)